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TRACING THE ORIGINS OF CHONDOGYO   CHONDOGYO-WHAT KIND OF RELIGION IS IT?   CHONDOGYO VIEWED THROUGH CHURCH DOCTRINE   CHONDOGYO BELIEF AND PRACTICE   THE CHONDOGYO PEOPLE'S MOVEMENT, NATIONAL MOVEMENT, AND CULTURAL MOVEMENT   APPENDIX : CHONODOGYO ORGANIZATION AND CANONICAL WRITINGS

Chunam Sangsa and The Cultural Movement Era

Euiam Sungsa and The Free Faith Era (Hyundosidae 顯道時代)

Haeweol Sinsa and the Era of Faith in Secret (Eundoshidae, 隱道時代)

The Founding Spirit of Su-un Daesinsa








Chunam Sangsa and The Cultural Movement Era



The name of Chunam (春菴) Sangsa(上師) is Park Inho. He was born on February 1 in the 5th year before Podeok (1855) in the village of Markdong-ri Jangchon-myun Deoksan-gun Chungcheongnam-do. Chunam Sangsa whose nature was simple and amicable became a Donghak follower in the 24th year of Podeok when he was 29 years old. After becoming a Donghak follower he did not once take off his korean traditional hat day and night and abstained from fish, meat, alcohol and tobacco and made a point of training mind and body with his hole heart every day for ten years. The story that he slept using a scythe handle as a pillow because of being concerned about deep sleeping and so waked out of a light sleep to read the incantation has been told until now. According to the guidance of Haeweol Sinsa he went to the Gaseobsa Temple in Gongju and read the incantation over and over again for 49 days and developed qualifications for leadership in the future. During the period of Donghak Revolution he joined in the revolution to lead the army of Donghak in Chungcheong-do as the Duk-ui grate leader (德義大接主).

 

After then Chunam Sangsa became the Gyungdoju (敬道主) in the 42nd year of Podeok (1901) and served in such as the Elder of Church (校長), the Adviser of Central Headquarters (中央總部顧問), the Chief of Financial Department (金融觀長) and so on. On December 10 in the 48th year of Podeok (1907) he became the Second Church Leader (Chadoju, 次道主) and on January 18 in the 49th year of Podeok he received the supreme command right as the Great Church Leader (Daedoju, 大道主) and became the Fourth Great Church Leader of Chondogyo (天道敎 4世 大道主).

 

After then Chunam Sangsa had setup the new leadership system of Chondogyo Headquarters and used all his force in expanding the religious influence. However in the 51st year of Podeok (1910) our country went through the pain of being forcibly occupied by Japan. In order to overcome this pain Chunam Sangsa who has followed the wish of Euiam Sungsa concentrated on the publication culture and the educational activity in spite of suppression and observation by Japan. Especially he founded the latest model printing house about that time as an attached office of Central Headquarters and established the foundation of Chondogyo capable of leading the cultural movement. He also took over Boseong School and Dongdeok Girls School and managed these schools. In addition he established and managed about 800 religious doctrine schools to lead the national education.

 

Chunam Sangsa was not included in the list of representatives at the time of the Samil Independence Movement in order to take a heavy responsibility of Chondogyo. However he was arrested as one of the 48 peoples by Japanese police and served time in prison. When Euiam Sungsa died in the 63rd year of Podeok (1922) Chunam Sangsa gave the general consultation system all works of Chondogyo and was left a spiritual leader of Chondogyo.

 

After then in the 79th year of Podeok (1938) Japan invaded Manchuria and the reign of militarism was growing more fiercely. Chunam Sangsa called the religious workers in country and commanded the special pray to wish the collapse of Japan. This movement is called the Muinmyeolwaegido Movement (戊寅滅倭祈禱運動). After then he did not submit to the harsh crackdown and kept Chondogyo constantly. He died on April 3 in the 81st year of Podeok (1940) and then he was 86 years old.

 

After Chunam Sangsa’s death the church system of Chondogyo was changed. The top leader of Chondogyo was elected by the general consultation system. After then in Chondogyo the top leader of Chondogyo (Gyoryeong, 敎領) was elected every three years by representatives and represented Chondogyo as an administrative and spiritual leader of Chondogyo. This system has continued up to this day. So all representatives of church gather every three years and elect the top leader of Chondogyo through the national convention and delegate him all works of church and let him lead the church.




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